Monday, April 30, 2018
Oral thrush, or oral pseudomembranous candidiasis, is a superficial mucous membrane infection that affects approximately 2–5% of normal newborns. Infants acquire Candida from their mothers at delivery and remain colonized.
Thrush may develop as early as 7–10 days of age. The use of antibiotics, especially in the 1st year of life, may lead to recurrent or persistent thrush. The plaques of thrush invade the mucosa superficially and may be found on the lips, buccal mucosa, tongue, and palate. Removal of plaques from these surfaces may cause mild punctate areas of bleeding, which helps to confirm the diagnosis.
Thrush may be asymptomatic or may cause pain, fussiness, and decreased feeding. It is uncommon after 12 months of age but may occur in older children treated with antibiotics. Persistent or recurrent thrush with no obvious predisposing reason, such as recent antibiotic treatment, warrants investigation of an underlying condition such as diabetes mellitus or immunodeficiency, especially vertically transmitted HIV infection.
Treatment of mild cases may not be necessary.
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